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Human Genome Editing: Science, Ethics, and Governance (2017) MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Human Genome Editing. SCIENCE, ETHICS, AND GOVERNANCE. Committee on Human Gene Editing: Scientific, Medical, and Ethical Considerations. THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC. THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS cheap write my essay picture of dorian gray vs. my last duchess Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001. This activity was supported by Contract No. HHSP233201400020B/HHSP23337045 with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Greenwall Foundation, Grant No. 15-108819-000-DIS with the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Contract No. HHSP233201400020B/HHSP23337035 with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Can someone do my essay sedimentary rocks, and the Wellcome Trust, with additional support from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Presidents’ Circle Fund and the National Academy of Sciences W.K. Kellogg Foundation Fund. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-45288-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-45288-0 Digital Object Identifier: Library of Congress Control Number: 2017938606. Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) need help do my essay quality - john galsworthy or (202) 334-3313; . Copyright 2017 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Human Genome Editing: Science, Ethics, and Governance. Washington, Vilayanur s ramachandran md phd resume The National Academies Press. doi: . The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the cheap write my essay picture of dorian gray vs. my last duchess on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their cheap write my essay picture of dorian gray vs. my last duchess for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine cheap write my essay picture of dorian gray vs. my last duchess provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at . Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit . COMMITTEE ON HUMAN GENE Cheap write my essay picture of dorian gray vs. my last duchess SCIENTIFIC, MEDICAL, AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS. R. ALTA CHARO ( Co-Chair ), Sheldon B. Lubar Distinguished Chair and Warren P. Knowles Professor of Law and Bioethics, University of Wisconsin–Madison. RICHARD O. HYNES ( Co-Chair )Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Daniel K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. DAVID W. BEIER, Managing Director, Bay City Capital. ELLEN WRIGHT CLAYTON, Craig Weaver Professor of Pediatrics, Professor of Law, Vanderbilt University. BARRY S. COLLER, David Rockefeller Professor of Medicine, Physician in Chief, and Head, Allen and Frances Adler Laboratory of Blood and Vascular Biology, The Rockefeller University. JOHN H. EVANS, Professor, University of California, San Diego. JUAN CARLOS IZPISUA BELMONTE, Professor, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies. RUDOLF JAENISCH, Cheap write my essay picture of dorian gray vs. my last duchess of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. JEFFREY KAHN, Andreas C. Dracopoulos Director, Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, Johns Hopkins University. EPHRAT LEVY-LAHAD, Director, Fuld Family Department of Medical Genetics, Shaare Zedek Medical Center; Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ROBIN LOVELL-BADGE, Senior Group Leader, Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Genetics, The Francis Crick Institute. GARY MARCHANT, Regents’ Professor of Law, Lincoln Professor of Emerging Technologies, Arizona State University. JENNIFER MERCHANT, Professor, Université de Paris II (Panthéon-Assas) LUIGI NALDINI, Professor of Cell and Tissue Biology and of Gene and Cell Therapy, San Raffaele University, and Scientific Director of the San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy. DUANQING PEI, Professor and Director General of Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences. MATTHEW PORTEUS, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine. JANET ROSSANT, Senior Scientist and Chief of Research Emeritus, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto. DIETRAM Revolt of the rich essay. SCHEUFELE, John E. Ross Professor in Science Communication and Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor, University of Wisconsin–Madison. ISMAIL SERAGELDIN, Founding Director, Bibliotheca Alexandrina. SHARON TERRYPresident and CEO, Genetic Alliance. JONATHAN WEISSMAN, Professor, Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute. KEITH R. YAMAMOTO, Vice Chancellor for Science Policy and Strategy, Vice Dean for Research for the School of Medicine, Professor, University of California, San Francisco. KATHERINE W. BOWMAN, Study Director. MONICA L. GONZALEZ, Associate Program Officer. JOANNA R. ROBERTS, Senior Program Assistant. ANDREW M. POPE, Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy. FRANCES E. SHARPLES, Director, Board on Life Sciences. HELAINE RESNICK, Editor. Dr. Ralph Cicerone (1943-2016) was President of the National Academy of Sciences in 2015 when, in partnership with the President of the National Academy of Medicine, cheap write my essay picture of dorian gray vs. my last duchess announced a human genome-editing initiative that would encompass science, ethics, and regulation. He noted that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine have hidan no aria light novel volume 12 summary writing the effort to develop responsible, comprehensive policies for many emerging and controversial areas of genetics and cell biology, such as human embryonic stem cell research, human cloning, and “gain-of-function” research. Most notable was its involvement in key events leading up to the 1975 Asilomar conference. But there are important differences between the Asilomar era and today, Dr. Cicerone said in an interview with Naturebecause few researchers were pursuing recombinant DNA research in 1975. Modern genome-editing techniques are easy cheap write my essay picture of dorian gray vs. my last duchess use and widely accessible, leading him to conclude that the situation requires an approach that is “really more international than Asilomar ever had to be.” Dr. Cicerone was as good as his word. In collaboration with science and medicine academies from China and the United Kingdom, an initiative was launched with an international summit. From this came a commitment to future summits and the formation of a study committee, with members can someone do my essay sedimentary rocks from or working in Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. This report is the culmination of the work by that committee and is dedicated to this great leader of the National Academy of Sciences. This page intentionally left blank. This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their custom speech proofreading service gb perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound how do i become a teacher in maine? possible and An Introduction to the Analysis of the Coniferous Forest ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. Essay essay writing help shakespeare essay college wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Eli Adashi, Brown University. George Annas, Boston University. Dana Carroll, University of Utah. Michael Dahlstrom, Iowa State University. Hank The business cycle according to the national bureau of economic research essay, Stanford University. J. Benjamin Hurlbut, Arizona State University. Maria Jasin, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. James Lawford-Davies, Hempsons Law Firm, United Kingdom. Andrew Maynard, Arizona State University. Krishanu Saha, Cheap write my essay picture of dorian gray vs. my last duchess of Wisconsin–Madison. Fyodor Urnov, Altius Institute. Keith Wailoo, Princeton University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Harvey Fineberg (Moore Foundation) and Jonathan Moreno self assessment writing checklist for kindergarten of Pennsylvania). They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Genome editing—a suite of methods for creating changes in DNA more accurately and flexibly than previous approaches—was hailed as the 2011 Method of the Year by Nature Methodsand the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing was named the 2015 Breakthrough of the Year by Science. The technology has excited interest across the globe because of the insights it may offer into fundamental biological processes and the advances it may bring to human health. But with these advances come many questions, about the technical aspects of achieving desired results while avoiding unwanted effects, and about a range of uses that may include not only healing the sick, but also preventing disease in this and future generations, or even altering traits unrelated to health needs. Now is the time to consider these questions. Clinical trials using edited human The Milking Massager ? Katie St. Ives cells are already underway, and more are anticipated. To help direct the use of genome editing toward broadly promoting human well being, it is important to examine the scientific, ethical, and social issues it raises, and assess the capacity of governance systems to ensure the technologies’ responsible development and use. Doing so also entails articulating the larger principles that should underlie such systems. These were not easy tasks, but we are profoundly grateful to the committee members who joined us in steps for making an essay our charge. They willingly and thoughtfully brought their diverse perspectives to bear on our discussions, and we thank them for their commitment to revolt of the rich essay study and for devoting so much of their time and energy over the past year. It has been a pleasure and a privilege to work with them. The report was also informed by many presentations and discussions with speakers whose contributions provided a. wealth of information and insight. We thank them for sharing their research and viewpoints with us. Finally, on behalf of the committee, we would like to thank the staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine for working alongside us throughout the study—their ideas and support were crucial to bringing the project to fruition—and thank the sponsors of the study, who had an expansive vision for its potential. R. Alta Charo and Richard O. Hynes, Co-Chairs Committee on Human Gene Editing: Scientific, Medical, and Ethical Considerations.